04 December, 2020

After Meluhha, The Melange

India was never isolated. It’s seen a number of migrations, including the Vedic ‘Aryans’—and the Veda was no continuation of Harappan religion.

The Pashupati seal
After Meluhha, The Melange

Slice Of Pie

  • Proto-Indo-European was spoken in the Pontic-Caspian steppe around 4000 BC.
  • Spread through Eurasia. One line went west, into Europe. One, Indo-Iranian, came south.
  • The Indo-Aryan family branched off from that.



Michael Witzel is the Wales Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University. At a conference earlier this year, he gave a talk tit­led Beyond the Flight of the Falcon: Early ‘Aryans’ within and outside India, to be published in Kumkum Roy et al. Excerpts from a version edited and extended for Outlook:

A major problem was, and to an extent still is, dating the early arya texts, especially the timeframe of the Rigvedic period. Archaeology alone cannot yet deliver relevant dates for northwest India (Greater Punjab), that is, for the end of the Harappan civilisation at 1900/1300 BC and the beginning of the Vedic civilisation. Rather, it is a combination of textual and...



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